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Study On Groundwater Contamination in the North Kelantan

on . Posted in Studies & Projects

Groundwater at the state of Kelantan is fully developed for potable use since 1935. The public water supply in Kelantan is handled by Air Kelantan Sdn. Bhd. (AKSB). The demand on groundwater for potable use has risen steadily over the last 30 years. Presently, fresh groundwater supply is obtained from 82 numbers of production wells located at 13 well-fields at North Kelantan. Groundwater for these all well-fields is drawn from shallow aquifer system except in Tanjung Mas and new wells at Pintu Geng. At present the total groundwater consumption is 134Ml/d, which constitutes about 41% of the total water production in AKSB’s water treatment plants. The demand of groundwater for potable use is estimated to be 165Ml/d in 2010 and will increase at a pace of 2.5% per year.

The rapid development of the urban area has caused the change in land use pattern and the widening of the urban area inevitably narrows down the catchment area. The rapid development which is parallel to the increase in population and increase in the demand for the domestic water supply has consequently exposed the groundwater to contaminations.



  1. To assess the quality of groundwater.
  2. To identify the causes of groundwater contamination.
  3. To assess the possibility of saltwater intrusion especially to the aquifer near the shore.
  4. To study the effects of groundwater contamination on human health.
  5. To determine the age of the groundwater and the mechanism of contamination movement using isotope



  1. Assessing the quality of groundwater.
  2. Identifying the causes of groundwater contamination.
  3. Assessing the possibility of saltwater intrusion.
  4. Assessing the effects of groundwater contamination on human health.
  5. Determining the age of the groundwater and the mechanism of contamination movement.



  1. The research finding will assist in sustainable groundwater management.
  2. Preparing Well Head Protection Area (WPHA).
  3. Controlling impact of saltwater intrusion.
  4. Enhancing awareness and knowledge of local society on the importance of groundwater.
  1. Carrying out remedial action immediately.
  2. Cost saving for remediation and conservation

KU1Construction of monitoring well at Kampung Seneng, Bachok

KU2Groundwater contamination study using ‘Ground Penetration Radar’ (GPR) at Kubang Kerian.

KU3Groundwater contamination study using Electrical Resistivity at Kubang Kerian.

KU4Groundwater Awareness Campaign at SK Beris Panchor, Bachok, Kelantan

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